85 Ranger 2.3L codes 21,23,24 sensors “out of range” and 41 states lean condition which I have been dealing with(replaced TPS). What exactly does “out of range” mean?

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Asked by Nov 29, 2013 at 11:27 AM about the 1985 Ford Ranger XLT Standard Cab SB

Question type: Maintenance & Repair

85 Ranger 2.3L codes 21,23,24 sensors “out of range” and 41 states lean condition which I have been dealing with(replaced TPS). What exactly does “out of range” mean?

1 Answer

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Parameters are set for the computer to recognize malfunctions. Generally, the TPS has an operating range of .5V to 4.5v. Any reading above or below those parameters will cause the PCM to ignore the sensor, default to a "fail- safe" mode (FMEM - Failure Mode Effects Management). A Lean code can mean that there isn't enough fuel to support Stoichiometric air/fuel ratios or perhaps the O2 sensor is open or shorted to ground or power. The acceptable voltage parameters for an Oxygen sensor are from .1V to 1.0v with the engine at operating temperature. The best way to diagnose this concern is with a Break-Out box or by pinning-out voltages at the sensors/actuators and at the PCM connector as well as testing the continuity of the harness from the PCM to each Actuator/Sensor. Or you could throw parts at it until you get lucky.

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